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In 1348, Charles founded the University of Prague, the first university on German soil.
By his Golden Bull, Charles IV gave Bohemia the highest secular electoral dignity of the Holy Roman Empire.
After 1437, Bohemia was ruled by kings of various lines until the death of Ludwig II, of the Jagellon dynasty, who was King of Bohemia and Hungary. Both Bohemia and Hungary after this battle came into the possession of Ferdinand I of Hapsburg who had married the sister of Ludwig II.
(For the further history of Bohemia see Austro-Hungarian Monarchy).
Böhmen , or formerly Böheim ; Latin Bohemia or Bojohemum ), a cisleithan (i.e.
It is one of the most thickly settled provinces of the monarchy, having 315 inhabitants to the square mile.
One duke of this line, Wratislaw II, received the title of King for life from the German Emperor, Henry IV. Ottokar I and Ottokar II were the most conspicuous rulers of the Premysl dynasty.
After this line became extinct (1306) Bohemia came under the sway of John of Luxembourg (1310-46).
The Bohemian rulers of the Luxembourg line, from Charles I, of Bohemia (the Emperor, Charles IV), until the extinction of the dynasty at the death of Sigismund (1437), were all German emperors.
Bohemia reached the height of its prosperity under the Emperor Charles IV who conquered Silesia and also occupied for a time the Mark of Brandenburg and the Upper Palatinate.
The Czechs form 63 percent of the population, and the Germans 36 per cent.